Segovia is located in the central plateau of the Iberian Peninsula, occupying a central position among castillian territories.
Segovia was first recorded as a Celtic possession, with control eventually transferring into the hands of the Romans. The city is a possible site of the battle in 75 BCE where Metellus was victorious over the general of Sertorius, Hirtuleius. Hirtuleius died in the fighting.1
During the Roman period the settlement belonged to one of numerous contemporary Latin convents. It is believed that the city was abandoned after the Islamic invasion of Spain centuries later. After the conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso VI, Segovia began restocking with Christians from the north of the peninsula and beyond the Pyrenees, providing it with a significant sphere of influence whose boundaries crossed the Sierra de Guadarrama and the Tagus.
Segovia’s position on trading routes made it an important center of trade in wool and textiles.
Segovia’s celtiberian origins can be tracked down to the city’s original name, Segobriga (“fortress of victory” in celtiberian). It would became an important enclave under roman control, when its famous aqueduct was built. Occupied by the Visigoths during the fall of the Western Empire, it was later severely depopulated and likely abandoned after the muslim invasion.
After Alfonso VI conquered Toledo in 1085, his son-in-law Raymond of Bourgogne led a repopulation effort in Segovia, attracting settlers from the northern areas of the Iberian Peninsula and southern France. The town endured several periods of unrest and turmoil during the XII century, sometimes against its own governors, sometimes being caught between dynastic struggles. However, its strategic location in trashumance routes boosted Segovia as an important wool trade and textile manufacturing center, a status that would be maintained through the following centuries.